On Old Age by Cicero – fourth objection, It is not far from death.

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On Old Age by Cicero – fourth objection, It is not far from death.

On Old Age by Cicero – fourth objection, It is not far from death.

  We come to the last conclusion of this series, the fourth objection: “We must finally consider the fourth objection to growing old – an objection that seems especially calculated to cause worry and distress to a man of my years. I speak of the nearness of death” I will draw upon the philosophy of later stoicism which are relevant to this subject and more updated. This also touches upon whether there’s an afterlife of not, which as I usually do throughout the work, I’ll give my own evaluation.   Death is not to be feared From Cato’s point of

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On Old Age by Cicero – Third objection, It deprives us of almost all sensual pleasures.

On Old Age by Cicero – Third objection, It deprives us of almost all sensual pleasures.

  Moving on from the last topic, Cato continues on his defence of old age; he gladly proclaims: “We come now to the third objection to growing older – that the pleasures of the flesh fade away. But if this is true, I say it is indeed a glorious gift that age frees us from youth’s most destructive failings” Bearing in mind that this work is not exclusively for old people but also for the youth who may grow to old age. The main themes of this objection are addressed by each sub-heading.   Where desire rules, there is no

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On Old Age by Cicero – Second objection, it weakens the body.

On Old Age by Cicero – Second objection, it weakens the body.

    Cato continues his pep talk on why old age should not be looked upon as a burden: “I no longer wish for the strength of youth – that was the second objection to growing older we listed – any more than when I was a young man I desired the strength of a bull or an elephant.” Cato’s declaration here is one of non attachment and equanimity he does not grasp at the loss of his youthful strength. Instead Cato recommended that we be utilitarians in whatever stage we are in the aging process. Moreover, Cato’s indifference to infirmity

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On Old Age by Cicero – First objection, It takes us away from an active life.

On Old Age by Cicero – First objection, It takes us away from an active life.

    In the first objection against old age, Cato fights against the claim of old age as a period in our lives where things slow down and stagnate and argues there are alternative activities that are just as dignified if not even more. “What kind of activities are we talking about? Don’t we mean the sort we engage in when young and strong? But surely there are activities suitable for older minds even when the body is weakened.” Cato gives examples of a handful of famous elderly Romans such as Gaius Fabricius Luscinus, Manius Curius Dentatus and Tiberius Coruncanius. Who

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On Old Age by Cicero – Intro, Preliminary Discourses & Minor Arguments

On Old Age by Cicero – Intro, Preliminary Discourses & Minor Arguments

Bust of Cato the Elder   Introduction Based on its mention in three letters to Atticus, Cicero’s friend, the earliest of which was written on 12th of May, 44 BC, it is assumed that this work was composed in April of that year. In this work, Cato Maior De Senectute (Cato the Elder on Old Age), commonly known as On Old Age. Cicero chooses, as his mouthpiece and principal speaker for this fictional dialogue, Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Elder), famous for signing off after every speech, no matter how trivial, with the phrase “Carthago delenda est” or “Carthage must be destroyed!”

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On dealing with Anxiety

On dealing with Anxiety

The world is an incredibly complex place and can often be bewildering and frightening. Indeed it can be so complex and so chaotically wonderful that many of us can struggle to cope with all that is going on which can make us feel anxious, fearful, angry or depressed. The human organism has been programmed biologically over hundreds of thousands of years of evolution to look for things that might threaten its survival and avoid them if possible. The things that it can’t avoid, it must then control or seek to overcome, only then can the human organism relax, but what

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