The Absurdism of Joker

The Absurdism of Joker

The Absurdism of Joker

SPOILER WARNING MOST OF THE MAIN PLOTS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS ARTICLE     Back in October of this year, the UK cinemas were graced by the showing of Joker (2019). An origin story depicting the becoming of Batman’s arch nemesis the Joker. When I watched this film, it struck me as having the makings of a cult classic. The film intends to shine a sympathetic light by portraying the would be Joker as a victim of very grim and dire life circumstances. If the postmodernists would have it, there would be near infinite ways of interpreting this film especially

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La Mettrie’s Last Stand

La Mettrie’s Last Stand

  After the controversial fallout of Anti-Seneca, our philosopher physician gives his final caper in his writing of the Preliminary Discourse which was included in his Philosophical Works published in 1750. Since this was the last of his works, for he died a year later, it can be considered to be his most mature espousal of his materialist philosophy and defence of it. Ann Thomson the editor of Machine Man and Other Writings published by Cambridge University Press summarises this work: “His main aim in the Preliminary Discourse is thus both to reaffirm his materialism and to show that his

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Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 6 That the wise man alone is rich

Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 6 That the wise man alone is rich

  We finally arrive at the last paradox; Paradox VI. That the wise man alone is rich. Cicero gives us his definition, revealed later, on what makes us rich and it’s not the common definition; this is why it has the making of a paradox! I will use the word affluent to describe wealthy in material possessions and money instead of rich to avoid confusion. This is addressed either to Marcus Brutus or Marcus Licinius Crassus (being the most affluent man in Rome) I’m assuming the former is being addressed because Crassus was already dead at the time of this

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Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 5 That the wise man alone is free, and that every fool is a slave.

Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 5 That the wise man alone is free, and that every fool is a slave.

Now to enter the world of Paradox V. That the wise man alone is free, and that every fool is a slave. As part of the commentary of Cicero’s Stoic Paradoxes. Be mindful that the word slavery has a special meaning here as will be revealed.   A detour into the ideal military leader   Though not a military man himself, Cicero begins by talking about the ideal disposition military generals should possess as part of their character; Cicero then goes on to comment: “But how or over what free man will he exercise control who can not command his

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Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 4 That Every Fool Is A Madman

Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 4 That Every Fool Is A Madman

Now to attend to Paradox IV – That every fool is a madman. This one’s only two pages long! However Mark Webb in his CICERO’S PARADOXA STOICORUM:A NEW TRANSLATION WITH PHILOSOPHICAL COMMENTARY for this paradox he says: ‘There is a substantial lacuna in the text here, after which the title paradox, that every fool is insane, is abandoned and two other paradoxes are taken up. They have been identified by Molager and Lee as “Every fool is an exile” and “The wise man cannot be harmed.” Very probably the end of paradox four and the beginning of the other has

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Musonius Rufus – How to Live by Ben White – Book Review

Musonius Rufus – How to Live by Ben White – Book Review

“Virtue isn’t simply theoretical knowledge-it is also practical application-just like the arts of medicine and music.” White, Ben. Musonius Rufus on How to live. I really like the ancient Stoics, and I particularly like the work of Marcus Aurelius and Musonius Rufus, because it’s self-evident that these men more than many others lived their work, and used their philosophy throughout their daily lives as a tool for correct living and self-improvement. Gaius Musonius Rufus was born around about 20-30 AD and was famous in Rome by the time of Nero a renowned teacher of Stoicism and was strongly associated with

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Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 3 All the vices and all the virtues are equal

Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 3 All the vices and all the virtues are equal

  As this series continues on exploring these paradoxes by Cicero, I endeavour to uncover and mine out the topics of each paradox. The next we come across is Paradox III – All the vices and all virtues are equal.   The measure of crime   At the beginning, Cicero, being the statesman he is, tells us what the measure of a crime is: “The matter it may be said is a trifle, but the crime is enormous; for crimes are not to be measured by the issue of events, but from the bad intentions of men” As Rome’s best

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Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 2 Virtue Is Sufficient For Happiness

Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 2 Virtue Is Sufficient For Happiness

    The previous paradox stated that virtue is the only good and if virtue is the only good then logically virtue alone is sufficient for happiness and that is what this paradox is all about. It’s a short essay being no more than 3 pages long! On the flip side though there is much content that can be elaborated provided you peruse it carefully. So onwards we go with the commentaries!   Cicero praises Marcus Regulus   Cicero begins by admiring the Consul Marcus Regulus, who fought against the Carthaginians in the first Punic war. Cicero tells us about

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Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 1 That Virtue Is The Only Good

Stoic Paradoxes – Paradox 1 That Virtue Is The Only Good

  Cicero’s Stoic Paradoxes   The Stoic Paradoxes is a short work written ‘during these shorter nights’ of the year 46BC. The work is comprised of six essays addressed to Marcus Brutus. In the short introduction of the work Cicero’s reasons are given for writing the essays: “I have, for amusement, digested into common-places those topics which the Stoics scarcely prove in their retirement and in their schools. Such topics are termed, even by themselves, paradoxes, because they are remarkable, and contrary to the opinion of all men” Cicero was a man indifferent to the disagreements or the ‘raillery’ of

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La Mettrie’s Anti-Seneca

La Mettrie’s Anti-Seneca

    Intro The philosopher physician returns and this time he brings his own ethics on happiness. However, his ethics sharply contrasts with that of the stoics putting forward hedonism over virtue (but not over the pleasure derived from collecting new knowledge it must be said). First published in 1748, while shacking up at Fredrick’s court, Anti-Seneca had gone through many revisions, rewritten many times by La Mettrie for the purpose of perfecting his morality drawn from his own interpretation of materialism. As is typical with our darling philosopher physician, contention, controversy and condemnation trails not far behind him with

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