On Old Age by Cicero – fourth objection, It is not far from death.

On Old Age by Cicero – fourth objection, It is not far from death.

On Old Age by Cicero – fourth objection, It is not far from death.

  We come to the last conclusion of this series, the fourth objection: “We must finally consider the fourth objection to growing old – an objection that seems especially calculated to cause worry and distress to a man of my years. I speak of the nearness of death” I will draw upon the philosophy of later stoicism which are relevant to this subject and more updated. This also touches upon whether there’s an afterlife of not, which as I usually do throughout the work, I’ll give my own evaluation.   Death is not to be feared From Cato’s point of

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On Old Age by Cicero – Third objection, It deprives us of almost all sensual pleasures.

On Old Age by Cicero – Third objection, It deprives us of almost all sensual pleasures.

  Moving on from the last topic, Cato continues on his defence of old age; he gladly proclaims: “We come now to the third objection to growing older – that the pleasures of the flesh fade away. But if this is true, I say it is indeed a glorious gift that age frees us from youth’s most destructive failings” Bearing in mind that this work is not exclusively for old people but also for the youth who may grow to old age. The main themes of this objection are addressed by each sub-heading.   Where desire rules, there is no

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On Old Age by Cicero – Second objection, it weakens the body.

On Old Age by Cicero – Second objection, it weakens the body.

    Cato continues his pep talk on why old age should not be looked upon as a burden: “I no longer wish for the strength of youth – that was the second objection to growing older we listed – any more than when I was a young man I desired the strength of a bull or an elephant.” Cato’s declaration here is one of non attachment and equanimity he does not grasp at the loss of his youthful strength. Instead Cato recommended that we be utilitarians in whatever stage we are in the aging process. Moreover, Cato’s indifference to infirmity

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On Old Age by Cicero – First objection, It takes us away from an active life.

On Old Age by Cicero – First objection, It takes us away from an active life.

    In the first objection against old age, Cato fights against the claim of old age as a period in our lives where things slow down and stagnate and argues there are alternative activities that are just as dignified if not even more. “What kind of activities are we talking about? Don’t we mean the sort we engage in when young and strong? But surely there are activities suitable for older minds even when the body is weakened.” Cato gives examples of a handful of famous elderly Romans such as Gaius Fabricius Luscinus, Manius Curius Dentatus and Tiberius Coruncanius. Who

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On Old Age by Cicero – Intro, Preliminary Discourses & Minor Arguments

On Old Age by Cicero – Intro, Preliminary Discourses & Minor Arguments

Bust of Cato the Elder   Introduction Based on its mention in three letters to Atticus, Cicero’s friend, the earliest of which was written on 12th of May, 44 BC, it is assumed that this work was composed in April of that year. In this work, Cato Maior De Senectute (Cato the Elder on Old Age), commonly known as On Old Age. Cicero chooses, as his mouthpiece and principal speaker for this fictional dialogue, Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Elder), famous for signing off after every speech, no matter how trivial, with the phrase “Carthago delenda est” or “Carthage must be destroyed!”

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The Immanent Lie

The Immanent Lie

  Another short essay by Transylvania’s very own Emil Cioran. Since the last essay I reviewed, I have read many others thereafter. Most, I feel, are so abstracted that you don’t know where the man is getting at and because of that he’s an author open to many interpretations. Many of Cioran’s ‘essays’ are shorter than my shortest article published on this website! Right from the start we are faced with this emotive sucker punch: “To live signifies to believe and to hope – to lie and to lie to oneself” Bear in mind he does not define what this

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Where is the meaning of life? Part 2

Where is the meaning of life? Part 2

  Building up from part 1, this article answers ‘where is the meaning of life’ question.   If this meaning of life still cannot be found out there in the universe of ours where is it? So where in good heavens is the meaning of life? The first answer: it is nowhere! it cannot be found on this planet or out in the wider universe. Yet people may say, ‘but it exists because I can think about the concept and communicate it to others ‘ and that right there! we must point out in that sentence, the words ‘think’ and

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Where is the meaning of life? Part 1

Where is the meaning of life? Part 1

    Introduction Anyone who has taken the time to think beyond the bubble of their daily lives and entertained the notion of the meaning of life, has, to their congratulations, graduated Key Stage level 1 in philosophy. It’s that staple question of philosophy isn’t it? The meaning of life. This question is always phrased as ‘what is the meaning of life?’ However, this article will be unorthodox, instead, the question should be ‘where is the meaning of life?’. This latter formulation of the same question is the empirical approach; only requiring sensory validation. Pointing at things, we’ve done this

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The Reactionary Angels

The Reactionary Angels

The reactionary angels is a short essay by Emil Cioran. It is one of the many essays that make up ‘A Short History of Decay’. If you read Cioran’s work you’ll find the sentences to be, maybe a bit vague, but often all open to interpretation. For me this particular essay stood out simply because I had much to say about it for annotation.   Injustice governs the universe! “Everything which is done and undone there bears the stamp of a filthy fragility, as if matter were the fruit of a scandal at the core of nothingness.” The first passage

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Buddhist philosophy on the self – What is it that makes you, you?

Buddhist philosophy on the self – What is it that makes you, you?

(Note: Sanskrit or Pali words are highlighted in italics) Buddhist philosophy offers us a conceptual model to deconstruct the individual into the constituents or components that make up his being. Outside these five components there can be no individual and to remove them would be to demolish the individual being. Since this model deals with the nature of being, then it is a concept that comes under the category of ontology, the philosophical study of being. So now enter the Skandhas, of which are a core concept in Buddhism. The concept is also known as the five aggregates that make

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